The Mystery of Samuel R. Scottron

The Campbell House Museum blog dated August 28, 2013 introduced our readers to Samuel R. Scottron and his Adjustable Mirror. Now, in honor of Black History Month, we revisit Samuel R. Scottron and attempt to clarify some biographical misconceptions rampant on the Internet.

Samuel R. Scottron

Samuel R. Scottron was born in February 1841 (though some census list 1843) in Philadelphia, PA, the second son of Samuel J. Scottron and Jane Maria Robinson. The family moved to New York in 1849 and to Brooklyn, NY in 1852. Prior to the Civil War, Samuel J. Scottron (the father) worked as a barber and a baggage master on a boat that travelled the Hudson River between New York City and Albany. Soon after the Civil War began, the firm of Statia, McCaffil, & Scottron was sutler for the Third U. S. Colored Infantry, a black regiment stationed at Morris Island, South Carolina. In 1863 Samuel R. Scottron (the son) went south with the regiment as his father’s representative. While in Fernandina, FL in 1864, Samuel R. Scottron assisted in the first general election that allowed the new freedmen to vote. He won the right to represent them in the National Colored Convention held in Syracuse, NY in 1865. In addition, he opened grocery stores in Jacksonville, Gainesville, Lakeville, Tallahassee, and Palatka, FL, but he soon left the struggling ventures and returned north.

Following one of his father’s trades, Samuel R. Scottron opened a barbershop in Springfield, MA. As he observed the difficulty his customers experienced trying to get a full view of the sides, rear, and top of the head in hand-held mirrors, he invented a mirror to provide the view desired. He described the “Scottron Adjustable Mirror” (patent #76253, dated 31 Mar 1868) as “mirrors so arranged opposite each other as to give the view of every side at once.” This was, in his opinion, new, useful, and simple – “we can see ourselves as other’s see us.”

Scottron’s Adjustable Mirror was seemingly his most popular item and was always mentioned prominently in any biographical account. In 2009, Terry Kovel of Kovel’s Antiques and Collecting was asked if the Scottron Adjustable Mirror was “rare.” He stated “a complete and restored Scottron mirror is on display at the Campbell House Museum in St. Louis. Scottron’s mirrors sold well in the late 1800s, but that doesn’t mean they’re not rare today. We have never seen one.”

“Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper”, 12 November 1870

Since his first patent for the adjustable mirror, Scottron went on to patent five more devices:

  • 1880 Feb 17, #224732, Adjustable window cornice (filed 08 Aug 1879)
  • 1883 Jan 16, #270851, Cornice (filed 28 Feb 1882)
  • 1886 Sep 21, #349525, Pole tip (filed 11 Feb 1886)
  • 1892 Aug 30, #481720, Curtain rod (filed 06 Feb 1892)
  • 1893 Sep 12, #505008, Supporting bracket (filed 13 May 1893)

In 1894 Samuel R. Scottron perfected a way to make glass look like onyx and other attractive stones – called “porcelain onyx.” He envisioned making the porcelain onyx into pedestals, but “we shall not stop at pedestals and tables,” he wrote, “but in a short time, hope to have the porcelain onyx tubes used inside architectural decorations, such as are made for church ornamentation, bar room and barbershop mirrors, mantle mirrors, pier mirror front and many ways too numerous to mention.” Colored American Magazine, v. 7, no. 10, Oct 1904

“Colored American Magazine”, volume 7, number 10, October 1904

Samuel R. Scottron died at Brooklyn, NY on 14 October 1908.

Nearly every biographical account regarding Samuel R. Scottron, especially the condensed versions readily available on the Internet, refer to Scottron’s relationship to the actress Lena Horne. Terry Kovel, in his article, stated, “by the way, Samuel Scottron is the maternal grandfather of Lena Horne, the famous singer and actress.” Lena Horne herself believed that Samuel Scottron was her great-grandfather, a conclusion she apparently derived from her daughter, Gail Lumet Buckley, who wrote a book entitled The Hornes: An American Family in 1986.

However, neither of these relationships is accurate.

It appears that Ms. Buckley confused Samuel J. Scottron (the father) with Samuel R. Scottron (the son) when trying to untangle her family’s genealogy. Ms. Buckley, in her biography of the Horne family, states that Cyrus L. Scottron was the youngest son of Samuel R. Scottron. In reality, Cyrus L. Scottron was the youngest son of Samuel J. Scottron (and therefore the youngest brother of Samuel R. Scottron).

Our evidence is as follows:

Samuel J. Scottron was born about 1816 in Philadelphia, PA. He married Jane Maria Robinson and they had 9 children. Samuel & Jane’s second child was Samuel R. Scottron, born in February of 1841. Samuel & Jane’s ninth child was Cyrus L. Scottron, born 13 Sep 1866 in Springfield, MA. [Note the 25-year age difference between the two brothers.]

Birth record of Cyrus Scottron

The 1870 Federal census from Springfield, MA shows the family of Samuel J. Scottron living next door to his son, Samuel R. Scottron. The Samuel J. Scottron household lists his wife Jane, daughters Melissa & Clara, and son Cyrus (age 3) living together. In the Samuel R. Scottron household we find wife Anna, son Oscar, and daughters Alice & Rowena.

1870 U.S. Federal Census – Springfield, MA
#179 – Samuel J. Scottron & family
#180 – Samuel R. Scottron & family

The 1900 Federal census from New York City shows Oscar A. Scottron, the son of Samuel R. Scottron, as the head of the household, with his uncle, Cyrus L. Scottron (age 34) living with the family.

1900 Federal Census – New York City
Cyrus L. Scottron (uncle) living with Oscar A. Scottron – his nephew and oldest son of Samuel R. Scottron, Cyrus’ brother

On 28 Dec 1889, Cyrus Scottron married Louise Ashton Logan.

“New York Age”, dated 04 Jan 1890, pg. 3

They had one daughter, Edna Louise Scottron (born 31 Oct 1894). For whatever personal reasons, Cyrus and Louise are never shown living together in the 1900 or 1910 census. Cyrus died 29 May 1913 at Springfield, MA.

1910 Federal Census – New York City
Louise Scottron, the wife of Cyrus L. Scottron, is living with her daughter, Edna, and grandmother, Louisa Ashton. Note that the census lists Louise as married for the past 20 years.

On 17 Nov 1915, Edna Scottron married Edwin (“Teddy”) Horne, Jr., and their one daughter was the actress and singer Lena Horne (born 30 Jun 1917).

Ms. Buckley felt that Samuel R. Scottron was the great-grandfather of Lena Horne. Actually, Samuel J. Scottron is the great-grandfather of Lena Horne, and Cyrus L. Scottron, his son, is Ms. Horne’s grandfather. Samuel R. Scottron, the inventor of the adjustable mirror and brother to Cyrus, is the great-uncle of Lena Horne.

We hope this information is of value to the Horne family and all the fans of Scottron family and Lena Horne.

“Brooklyn Daily Eagle”, 21 Feb 1897, pg. 11 – a biography of Cyrus that specifically lists him as brother to Samuel R. Scottron.

All Wrapped Up in Finery: Virginia Campbell’s Shawl

Every object has its own chapter that makes the greater story of the Campbell family and the Museum remarkable. Although some of these chapters have been lost during the transition from a house to a museum, original objects continue to return “home” to the Campbell House more than 70 years after the last Campbell died. One extraordinary artifact associated with Virginia Campbell was donated this past summer: a shawl.

Portrait of Virginia Campbell circa 1882 showing the shawl draped over the chair.

Portrait of Virginia Campbell circa 1882 showing the shawl draped over the chair.A large nine-foot long shawl was donated by the family that purchased it from the Campbell estate auction in 1941. The unique textile is made from silk and wool and is believed to date from around 1840. It appears to be the shawl draped over a chair in the life-size portrait of Virginia Campbell hanging above the piano in the downstairs parlor.

Between the years 1770 and 1870, the most valuable thing in a women’s armoire was a Kashmir shawl. These textiles originated from Kashmir, a lush area in India. Documentation shows that woolen shawls were fashionable for Indian and Persian men and women centuries prior, but it was not until King Zayn-ul-Abidin, a 15th century leader of Kashmir, introduced Turkish weaving to the area, that Kashmir became noted for their textiles.

Made from the finest goat fleece, these shawls were hand-woven by a team of specialists. Looms were later introduced and the weaving process that could take years then only took a few months. Traditionally, flowering plants were the primary design on the shawls. In the early 18th century, these flowering plants morphed into encased flowers, and by the time Western European consumption of shawls began, morphed into the “buta” design. Meaning “flower,” the “buta” design is the characteristic tear drop with a bent tip design. This became known as the “pine” and the “cone,” in Western Europe, and the “paisley” in North America.

In the late 18th century, Kashmir shawls were acquired by travelers, explorers, military personnel and members of the East India Company who brought them back as “exotic” presents. Shortly after, European countries, namely England and France, began producing imitation Kashmir shawls. Although never fully obtaining the same quality as the original Kashmirs, European design had its own value in the market. France took the lead by obtaining its materials from the Middle East, creating distinctly French designs, and revolutionized production with img_5709the introduction of the Jacquard loom. Eventually, Europeans produced comparable shawls with cheaper materials. This caused the prices of European produced shawls to drop, allowing more than just the wealthy to own a shawl. The United States, emulating European fashions, also started producing a limited amount of shawls, in addition to wearing the ones purchased abroad.

shawlparlor

Shawl in display in the Campbell House parlor, December 2016.

A number of factors led to the decline of the Kashmir shawl industry in the West: war, famine, and fashion. By the 1870s, France had become the biggest importer of both shawls and shawl materials from Kashmir. But when the Franco-Prussian War broke out in 1870, trade halted and robbed Kashmir of its largest shawl consumer. Around the same time, a famine crossing India robbed the industry of its artists, leaving fewer workers to create the shawls. Additionally, the “in” dress fashions played a role in the decline of shawl popularity. The bustles, or protrusion on the back of the dress, did not allow the shawl to fall properly as it did with previous dress styles. While some women altered their shawls to fit the new style, many sought to repurpose their textile treasure into furniture pieces, such as piano covers or curtains. Furthermore, as the prices became cheaper and more women owned shawls, it fell out of style. What was once a symbol of wealth and luxury became a garment of days gone by.

The donated shawl made its debut during this year’s Christmas display and will be out for public viewing until mid-January.

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Ancient Halloween Traditions

The term “Hallowe’en” dates to 1745 & derives from the Scottish term for “All Hallow’s Eve” – the evening (‘een) before All Hallows or All Saints Day (a hallowed person being the same as a saint). This solemn religious festival became associated with bonfires, disguises, spirits, apple bobbing, & burning hazelnuts through a tradition of the early Christian Church to graft a religious festival upon each pagan one so as not to disturb the customs of the people; and just as they grafted Christmas, the feast of the Nativity, upon Yule, the winter solstice festival of the Nordic peoples, so they grafted Hallowe’en upon the ancient Celtic festival of Samhain (pronounced sah’-win), which marked the beginning of the Gaelic year.

Most European peoples bisected the year at the summer (June) & winter (December) solstices. The Celts bisected the year at spring (May 1 – Beltane – the entry to summer) and fall (November 1 – Samhain – the entry to winter). This division was natural to a pastoral people: at Beltane the flocks & herds went to their summer pastures and at Samhain they returned to the fold. At Beltane, a blessing was invoked on hunter, herdsman, cattle, & crops; while Samhain was a day of thanksgiving for the safe return of the wanderers and the renewal of the food supply.

November was also the season of earth’s decay, and the day that marked the end of summer was symbolic of death; thus Samhain also became a day of remembrance of the dead. All Saints’ Day was introduced in the year 609, but was originally celebrated on May 13th. In 835 A.D. Pope Gregory IV transferred this festival to November 1, the same day as Samhain. While the Feast of All Saints commemorated the “blessed dead,” the Feast of All Souls (November 2) was consecrated to the “faithful dead.” All over Europe the souls of the departed were believed (and the belief still lingers) to re-visit their old homes at this season. Some traditions place All Hallow’s Eve on the evening of October 31 (the day before All Hallow’s) while others place it on the evening of November 1 (between All Saints and All Souls days).

Not only were the ghosts of the departed wandering on this day – the whole Other world was temporarily upset, and its denizens were set free to pester anyone they encountered. At dusk the Sluath (sloo-ah), the Host of the Dead, drifts by on the wind. These spirits could stir trouble by stealing crops, creating panic, and tricking people out of goods and money. Offerings of food were left (or given to the Druid priests) to keep spirits from entering homes or creating chaos. People also carved faces into fruits & gourds (particularly turnips) and left them outside their homes to ward off evil spirits. This custom eventually transferred to pumpkins; hence the origins of the Jack O’ Lantern.

An artist's visualization of Samhain.

An artist’s visualization of Samhain.

During Samhain, sacred bonfires were lit to ward off the darkness, animals were sacrificed, & Druid priests dressed in costumes of animal skins and heads to represent the spirit world. However, by 1585, the object of a Hallowe’en guiser was not to imitate but to avoid being recognized by the spirits of the dead. Today, the masks and garments of the guisers again represents the creatures their forefathers believed to be at large on Hallowe’en night – ghoulies, ghosts, witches, fairies, etc. – and the practice has since passed particularly to children. Emboldened by disguise, they go from door to door with a “Please to help the guisers!” and are rewarded with apples, nuts, coins, and, much later, candy. Tricks were played to imitate the mischievous spirits that their forebears feared. The earliest known reference to “Trick or Treat” was not recorded until 04 Nov 1927, in the Blackie (Alberta, Canada) Herald. [Another theory traces this custom to the medieval practice of “mumming,” seasonal folk plays that happened on holidays.]

As a season of omens and auguries, Hallowe’en, as the beginning of a New Year, was also the best time to pry into the future. The veil between the natural and spirit world thinned to transparency and glimpses of things hidden in time could be obtained. The materials used – principally grain, vegetables, & fruit – mark the close association of Hallowe’en and Harvest. Thus, games with apples and hazelnuts were used as a means for seeing into the future. To the early Celts, the hazel – “the magic tree that wizards love” – was the source and symbol of wisdom, while the apple was the talisman that admitted a favored mortal to the Otherworld and gave the power to foretell the future. Hallowe’en parlor games were reminiscent of mythological ordeals by fire and water & the quest to obtain great treasure and knowledge. Dookin’ for Aipples (Dunking for Apples) symbolized the Druidic rite of passing through water to Avalon (or Apple-land), to then pluck an apple from the Tree of Knowledge, and obtain the gift of prophesy. [Another theory traces its origins to the Roman conquests & the festival to the goddess Pomona, whose sacred fruit was apples.]nut-burning2

The “Ordeal by Fire” is symbolized in The Aipple and the Can’le or the “Snap-Apple” – whereby a rod is set to spin with an apple on one end and a candle at the other. The guests must “snap” to bite the apple without burning themselves. Englishmen & Celts thus referred to Hallowe’en as “Snap Apple Night.” Burning two hazelnuts, with a lover’s name written on each, was a means to see which hazelnuts jumped and cracked & which burned peacefully together.

Some of the earliest literary works on the subject of Halloween can be traced to the 1780s, particularly Robert Burn’s 1785 poem “Halloween.” Burns himself drew images of the festivities, as did other artists, but arguably the best representation belongs to Daniel Maclise. In 1832 Daniel Maclise, who was originally from Cork, made an excursion through Oxford and the midland counties of England, before traveling to Ireland, via Holyhead. Accompanied by Thomas Crofton Croker, he arrived in Cork, where they were guests of honor at the All Hallow’s Eve party, held annually in a large barn by the Rev. Fr. Mathew Horgan, parish priest at Blarney, only a few miles from Cork.

Justin O’Driscoll, Maclise’s biographer, writes:

It was the invariable custom of the good priest to invite a large party on All Hallows Eve; it was a social gathering where persons of superior position in society were to be found unaffectedly mingling with the poorest peasantry of the parish. Crofton Croker and Maclise were invited to this entertainment, and whilst the young artist, charmed with the novelty of the scene, surrendered himself heart and soul to the enjoyment of the night and joined with the harmless hilarity that prevailed, he contrived to sketch every group in the barn.

Daniel Maclise

Daniel Maclise

His first major genre painting in oils, “Snap-Apple Night or All-Hallow’s Eve, in Ireland” was shown at the 1833 Royal Academy Exhibition. The critics gave mixed reviews to the painting, but the public loved it and it was considered the most popular at the exhibition. This led to an engraving by James Scott, first published in 1837, which only enhanced “Snap Apple Nights” popularity. Maclise crowded his painting with a large group of people, dancing, playing games, and participating in practically every Halloween custom outlined by Robert Burns. He also included in his painting images of close friends and family, including Fr. Horgan, Thomas Crofton Croker, Sir Walter Scott, Maclise’s sisters and brother-in-law, Dr. McEvers (a local physician), and possibly even Maclise himself, standing by the fire with a young woman on his arm. There was no denying that Maclise had captured the festivities and enjoyment associated with the ancient holiday.

All Hallow Eve—or snap-apple night, as it has been popularly termed—will be celebrated this evening, with all the festive éclat of its predecessors. Says the New York World, this great feast has long been appropriated to the purpose of making the single married and the married happy… The sportive exercises which also mark the occasion – which include diving for apples, burning nuts, melting lead and casting it in water in order to have it assume shapes which betoken future incidents, and other curious exercises – will make Hallow-E’en, as in times past, sustain its old reputation for pleasing incidents and household joy. ["New Haven Daily Palladium", 31 Oct 1865, pg 2]

All Hallow Eve—or snap-apple night, as it has been popularly termed—will be celebrated this evening, with all the festive éclat of its predecessors. Says the New York World, this great feast has long been appropriated to the purpose of making the single married and the married happy… The sportive exercises which also mark the occasion – which include diving for apples, burning nuts, melting lead and casting it in water in order to have it assume shapes which betoken future incidents, and other curious exercises – will make Hallow-E’en, as in times past, sustain its old reputation for pleasing incidents and household joy. [“New Haven Daily Palladium”, 31 Oct 1865, pg 2]

As the Europeans immigrated to North America, autumn festivals, accompanied by bonfires and social games, were common throughout Colonial times & the early 1800s; but the Puritans of New England were opposed to Hallowe’en and anything associated with spirits and ghosts. It wasn’t until the Irish and Scottish immigration during the mid-19th century (and their accompanying Catholic, Episcopal, and Lutheran denominations) when Hallowe’en traditions began appearing regularly in the New World.

In St. Louis, Robert Campbell was probably aware of Halloween due to his Scots-Irish heritage, though it is doubtful his Presbyterian upbringing promoted the festivities. What is more likely is that Robert’s sister-in-law, Mary Kyle Campbell, the wife of his brother Hugh and beloved aunt to the Campbell children, who lived just a block away at 1532 Washington Ave and who had been raised in the Anglican church, would have been more familiar (and arguably more supportive) of Hallowe’en traditions. It is curious to note that today the Derry & Strabane District Council in Northern Ireland sponsors a Halloween festival that is billed as one of the world’s largest. Strabane, the second largest city in County Tyrone, is only 10 miles from Robert’s home in Plumbridge and the city of Derry is only 14 miles further north, the port from which both Hugh and Robert Campbell would have started their immigration journey to America.

Following the Civil War, Halloween was becoming a more widely known and accepted social custom. St. Louis newspapers in November 1870 even encouraged it:

The quaint old festival of Halloween or All Hallows’ Eve should, according to the calendar have been celebrated yesterday the 31st October; but in St. Louis we fancy it had no general recognition. It is however one of those old anniversaries, the celebration of which is so invested with social pleasantness that it should be perpetuated. [Daily Missouri Republican, 01 Nov 1870, pg 3]

It may not be out of place to refer to All Hallow’s Eve, or Halloween, which is observed on the vigil of All Souls’ Day, namely yesterday [November 1]. In the old country it is observed as a day of rejoicing. The games, sports and pastimes remind a person much of those that take place on Christmas day. We have not space to describe those innocent recreations and diversions… [Missouri Democrat, 02 Nov 1870, pg 4]

St. Louis "Globe-Democrat", August 10, 1931

St. Louis “Globe-Democrat”, August 10, 1931

At this time, Robert’s sons Hazlett was age 12 & James age 10, but Hugh was age 23, in his prime for the society parties that were increasingly reported in subsequent years. Also note that several of the Campbell domestic servants were Irish immigrants and no doubt Catholic. Irish servants working for the Campbell household in 1880 included Hannah O’Rourke (washwoman; nursemaid; b.c1830; age 50); Ellen Maney (cook; b.c1850; age 30); and John O’Neill (coachman; b.c1840; age 40). St. John the Apostle & Evangelist Catholic Church (the “Irish church”) is 1½ blocks directly south of the Campbell House on Chestnut Street & there were many Irish families living in the immediate neighborhood. It is certainly possible that turnips or pumpkins were carved at the Campbell House, especially in later years when Hugh was the head of the household (c1880 through 1910s).

Initially limited to immigrant communities, the press promoted Halloween’s quaint customs and social activity, such that by the end of the 19th century, the festival had spread nationally. With that, an effort was made to make it more of a community & family holiday, without necessarily removing its religious significance. Many (unsuccessfully) pushed to take the “scary” and “fright” out of it completely. By the 1920’s and 1930’s, Halloween had become a national secular holiday. It’s possible that Gus Meyer, Hugh Campbell’s personal assistant, passed out apples, sweets, or “trick or treats” at 1508 Locust Street, although starting in 1926 the brothers were almost totally reclusive, and the house took on the aura of the “mystery house.” Though it is questionable whether anyone would dare knock on the door (or that anyone would answer it), the house itself must have stirred its share of Halloween stories.

Tom Gronski
Senior Researcher